The Most Common Mental Health disorders
A mental disorder can also be referred to a mental illness, a psychological disorder or psychiatric disorder. The mental health disorders can be described as behavioral or mental pattern that causes either suffering or a poor ability to function in ordinary life. Mental disorders cause an abnormality in the way people think and behave. There are a number factors that contribute to a person having mental disorders.
Some of the factors that affect adults and children of all ages includes biological, genetics and environmental factors. Over the years with advances in clinical psychiatry, there have been a number of changes in recognition of the types of mental disorders. To ensure that a person has received the right treatment and recovered, it is extremely important to identify and diagnose these conditions.
Classification of the types of mental disorders:
Although the definitions and classification of the various types of mental disorders have undergone a number of changes, only two systems classifications of mental health disorders are currently accepted. The first system was done by ICD-10 cheaper IV: Mental and behavioral disorders. The manual was published by the international classification of diseases, WHO since the year 1949. The second classification is in the latest fourth edition of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of mental diseases (DSM), which was produced by America Psychiatric association. This manual has been in publication since 1952 and is widely used in the United States. Britain and the rest of Europe follows the classification provided by the ICD. Both these lists are syndrome based classifications that include a wide range of mental health disorders that affect human beings.
The ICD-10 has also included the list of childhood mental conditions in two broad categories. The disorders of psychological children’s behavior and emotional problem development category and the second category, which is the behavioral and emotional disorder with onset that usually occur in childhood and adolescence. The DSM 1V includes the childhood under Axis 1, anxiety disorder of childhood or adolescence, elimination disorders, eating disorder and tic disorders. The other classification in DSM IV is in Axis II under pervasive developmental disorders. The list below contain the most common mental disorders affecting both adults and children along with their definitions.
Affecting around 40 million Americans adults alone, this disorder is extremely common and affects anyone, be it children or adults. Unlike general bouts of anxiety once in a while, anxiety disorders are marked by extended periods of of six months or more. Anxiety disorder is a broad spectrum of disorders that consists of generalized anxiety disorder, panic disorder, specific phobia, obsessive compulsive disorder and post traumatic stress.
Post traumatic stress- This disorder result after a traumatic experience like hostage situations, natural disasters, rape or as a result of bullying. When a person is affected by this stress the person suffers from depression, anger and anxiety. Repeated flashback of the experience can increase the distress if the condition is not treated.
Social anxiety disorder- This disorder is also known as social phobia. This type of anxiety makes a person to feel extremely anxious and self-conscious in a social situation. The individual may start blushing, sweating profusely, trembling or have difficulty in conversing with people.
Panic disorder – This is a common disorder that affects both adults and children. The disorder may lead to several or recurrent panic attacks that are sudden and triggered without any warning. The common symptoms of this type of disorder include rapid heartbeat, intense anxiety, dizziness, uncontrollable fear, feeling intense and trembling.
Obsessive compulsive disorder- This disorder causes the repeated experience of unwanted feelings, ideas or obsession. Repetitive obsession of distressing thought often leaves a person tired and anxious all the time. Example of a person having obsessive compulsive behavior includes checking and rechecking certain things such as locking the door or repeated washing of hands to remove infection carrying germs.
- Childhood disorders
Just like adult mental mental disorder, there are a number of childhood mental disorders. Child psychiatry studies have shown the need to study the child psychology differently from adult psychology. The reason is because a child is dependent on parent caregivers for emotional and other development. In addition, children do not express themselves in words and as a result, their disorders are more difficult to treat. These are some of the mental problems that affect the children.
Autistic disorder- This is a developmental disorder in which the child displays a repetitive behavior and limited social communication. You can start to notice the symptom of this disorder as early as preschool age. No babbling at twelve months old or no words spoken at eighteen months along with loss of language or social skills are some of the developmental deficits that can indicate developmental deficits.
Mental retardation- This can also be referred as intellectual disability. It is a developmental disability that is characterized by below average intellectual functioning and adaptive skills
Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD/ADD) – This is the most common childhood disorder that is characterized by hyperactive behavior difficulty in paying attention and staying focused. A child affected by this disorder easily get distracted, switches from one activity to another, misses out on things, talks non stop and often do not listen when spoken to.
Encopresis – This disorder is the voluntary soiling of the clothes because of the withholding of stool. Stool collects and accumulates in the colon and often leaks out. This disorder is commonly seen in toilet trained toddlers who are above four years. This disorder is caused by holding of stool due to neurological or psychological disorder.
Enuresis– Also referred as bed-wetting. This is the inability to control urination, especially when a child is sleeping. This disorder can be classified as three types; the diurnal enuresis (daytime incontinence), nocturnal enuresis (nighttime incontinence) and mixed enuresis. Primary enuresis to disorders in children who have not been toilet trained and second enuresis that refers to toilet trained kids who have incontinence due to some situations that are stressful.
Other childhood disorders include learning disorders, oppositional defiant disorder, pica disorder, Rett’s disorder, rumination disorder, selective mutism, separation anxiety disorder, stereotypical movement disorder and tic disorders.
- Cognitive disorders.
These are disorders that affect the learning, problem in solving and perception as well as memory. Contrary to the popular believe, this disorder does not only affect the elderly. Disorders like dementia and delirium can affect people at all ages. Cognitive disorders also result when people abuse drugs, some medical condition or the combination of the two.
Delirium is a mental disorder characterized by difficulties in understanding a situation and disturbance of a person’s consciousness. Dementia is described as a disorder that results to a person losing memory due to certain factors that includes brain trauma or stroke.
- Dissociative disorders
Dissociative disorder results when there is complete breakdown or disruption of a person’s memory and awareness. The person’s feelings, thoughts and sensations become completely disconnected from one another. These disorders are often caused by psychological trauma especially at adolescence or childhood and ranges from amnesia to a multiple personality disorder.
Other forms of dissociative disorders includes dissociative fugue which is caused by a single stressful event where an individual may construct a whole new identity to replace the confusion regarding his or her identity. Multiple personality disorder that makes a person to have two or more identities and not to have the ability to recollect the memories of each personality state is also another type of dissociative identity disorder.
This is a major mental health problem that is defined as extreme or excessive restrictive food intake that can severely harm an individual’s health. A person is so much preoccupied with food that he or she has little time to think of anything else.
The forms of this disorder include Anorexia nervosa, which is characterized by an irrational fear of putting on weight, making the individual to have a severely restricted diet. Food restrictions lead to a severe weight loss as well as other metabolic and hormonal changes. Binge eating disorders is another disorder that makes a person to lose control over his or he eating. This disorder can lead to obesity and other diseases like cardiovascular problems. Finally, we have the Bulimia nervosa, which is a disorder that makes a person to feel guilty after consuming excess food and start to force themselves to vomit or to exercise excessively to avoid to add weight.
- Mood disorders
This is a very common mental health disorder that affects a lot of people across the world. The disorder can signify a major change in an individual’s mood. The disorders include bipolar and depression disorder that are emotionally crippling mental illness that can affect a person’s health excessively and dynamic and Cyclothymic disorder which are moderate forms of moods disorders.
In conclusion, we have the personality disorders that affect people who deviate from a set of distinctive behavioral and mental traits that are denied by our society. These disorders include schizoid, schizotypal, antisocial, borderline, narcissistic, histrionic, avoidant, obsessive, compulsive and paranoid personality disorders. Sexual mental health disorders include dyspareunia, exhibitionism, female and male orgasmic, fetishism, gender identity, hypoactive sexual desire and male erectile dysfunction. Finally, we have the sleep disorders that include hypersomnia, insomnia, nightmare, sleepwalking, oneirophrenia and parasomnias sleep disorders.
Although this list is not a comprehensive list of mental health disorders it has tried to include the most common disorders that have been identified by psychiatrists and other mental health professionals across the world. The disorder assessment and immediate treatment may be in forms of medications or therapy to help in preventing what might become a severe and debilitating psychiatric disorder.